Anisonema dubium Blume
Anisonema intermedium Decne.
Anisonema jamaicense (Griseb.) Griseb.
Anisonema multiflorum (Baill.) Wight
Anisonema puberulum Baill.
Anisonema reticulatum (Poir.) A.Juss.
Anisonema wrightianum Baill.
Anisonema zollingeri Miq.
Cicca decandra Blanco
Cicca reticulata (Poir.) Kurz
Diasperus multiflorus (Baill.) Kuntze
Diasperus reticulatus (Poir.) Kuntze
Kirganelia dubia (Blume) Baill.
Kirganelia intermedia (Decne.) Baill.
Kirganelia lineata Alston
Kirganelia multiflora Baill.
Kirganelia prieuriana Baill.
Kirganelia puberula Baill.
Kirganelia reticulata (Poir.) Baill.
Kirganelia sinensis Baill.
Kirganelia wightiana Baill.
Melanthesa oblongifolia Oken
Phyllanthus alaternoides Rchb. ex Baill.
Phyllanthus chamissonis Klotzsch
Phyllanthus depressus Buch.-Ham. ex Dillwyn
Phyllanthus griseus Wall.
Phyllanthus jamaicensis Griseb.
Phyllanthus multiflorus Willd.
Phyllanthus oblongifolius Pax
Phyllanthus pentandrus Roxb. ex Thwaites
Phyllanthus prieurianus (Baill.) Müll.Arg.
Phyllanthus puberulus Miq. ex Baill.
Phyllanthus scandens Roxb. ex Dillwyn
Phyllanthus sinensis Müll.Arg.
Phyllanthus spinescens Wall.
Phyllanthus takaoensis Hayata
Phyllanthus reticulatus varies in habit from a much-branched, deciduous shrub 0.5 - 4.5 metres tall with long, thin often drooping branches, to a tree growing 5 - 18 metres tall[
]. It sometimes adopts a more climbing habit. The stem is around 25cm in diameter[
A multipurpose plant, providing a range of medicinal uses and other commodities for the local people, as well as a possibly edible fruit. The fruit is occasionally sold in local markets[
]. The root bark, stem bark and leaves are collected from the wild and traded in local markets[
The fruit and root have been recorded as being used in criminal poisoning[
]. The plant is reported to be toxic to poultry, but the part(s) of the plant is not indicated[
]. Birds in Tanganyika are reported to eat the ripe fruit[
Tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, through Asia to Australia.
Often forming thickets on floodplain grassland; sand dune scrub; littoral scrub and dune forest; rain-forest; mixed deciduous woodlands and scrub; occasionally on termitaria; miombo woodlands; often beside seasonal rivers and streams[
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A plant of the moist tropics, it is found at elevations from 800 - 2,000 metres[
Succeeds in most soils and a position in full sun or partial shade[
The plant can become an invasive weed of cultivated land[
The plant coppices well[
Plants will often flower all year round[
]. They are traded in Sierra Leone Freetown market as sour grapes and may be occasionally eaten in E Africa, but perhaps serve only as an emergency food in times of need[
The plant has a long history of use in traditional medicine. Various parts of the plant has been shown to contain tannins, which are partly responsible for its medicinal and dyeing properties[
A number of triterpenoids have been isolated from the stems and leaves, including sitosterol, friedelin and betulinic acid[
The stem bark contains pentacosane, 21-α-hydroxyfriedelan-3-one, taraxerol and lupene-24-diol.[
Petroleumether and ethanol extracts of the leaves have shown hypoglycaemic effects[
An ethanolic extract of the stem bark showed in-vitro antiviral properties against polio and measles viruses, and antitumor activity[
Extracts of the leaves have shown promising antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine-resistant and -sensitive malaria parasites[
Sap from the stem is blown into the eyes to cure soreness[
A soup made of the leaves, boiled with palm fruits, is given to women after child-birth[
]. The powdered leaves are combined with cubebs and camphor then made into tablets that can be sucked in order to treat bleeding gums[
The powdered leaf is used externally for topical application to sores, including venereal sores, burns, suppurations and skin-chafes[
]. The mashed leaves are rubbed over the body of a malaria patient[
The leaves and bark are reputed to be diuretic and cooling[
The root is purgative and has a variety of uses[
]. A decoction is used in the treatment of hookworm, whilst water in which the root has been boiled is taken as a male aphrodisiac, to increase fertility, to treat headache, for dysmenorrhoea, for hard abscesses[
A decoction of the root, combined with the leaf-sap, is used as an antispastic[
The plant is considered a remedy for anaemia and intestinal haemorrhage[
The stems are used as roof-binders in conical huts[
The twigs are used as chew-sticks and toothbrushes[
A red or black dye is obtained from the fruit, bark and roots[
A black ink is made from the ripe fruits[
A decoction of the stem and leaves is used as a mordant and also for dyeing cotton black[
Tannins are obtained from the fruits, roots and bark[
The plant has been used in trials to remove heavy metals from contaminated soil. Although it was effective, other species such as Pluchea indica performed significantly better[
The greyish-white to reddish wood is said to be very hard and tough[
]. It is suitable for local construction and is used to make threshing flails, utensils and other small objects[
The wood is suitable for firewood and tinder, and makes a good quality charcoal[
] It is fixed into a fire-drill[